African swine fever does not infect people, the virus can be completely inactivated at high temperatures – African swine fever is not terrible
Economic Daily, China Economic Net reporter Qiao Jinliang
Recently, people have been getting the word "African swine fever" from various sources. As a major consumer of pork, China's annual consumption of pork exceeds 50 million tons. After the African swine fever epidemic, consumers are keen to know: Are African piglets criticized? How is it spread? Will it affect the safety of pork? How to prevent and control? In this regard, the Economic Daily reporter interviewed a number of industry experts
Pork is rich in nutrients and has many practices. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats for Chinese consumers. However, since the first case of swine fever was discovered in China in August 2018, although the country has quickly taken countermeasures, a large number of pigs have been culled, causing widespread public concern about the safety of pork.
Where does African piglet come from?
In 1921, African swine fever was first diagnosed in Kenya and subsequently ravaged in many countries. There is still no effective vaccine. In the past 100 years, only 13 countries have eradicated the epidemic, and the eradication time is 5 to 36 years.
African swine fever is an acute, potent infectious disease of pigs with a mortality rate of up to 100%. Currently, there is no effective vaccine in the world. Due to its remarkable early detection, difficult prevention, and long incubation period, pigs may not have clinical symptoms within 3 weeks after infection, which is called "the first killer of pigs." In 1921, African swine fever was first diagnosed in Kenya, introduced to Europe in 1957, introduced to the Americas in 1971, introduced to Russia and the Caucasus in 2007, and spread and prevalent in several Eastern European countries. In 2018 alone, more than 6,200 outbreaks were reported in 22 countries around the world. In August 2018, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, appeared the first African swine fever epidemic in China.
African pigs are ravaged by many countries around the world. How is it spread? According to Huang Baoxu, deputy director of the China Center for Animal Health and Epidemiology, molecular epidemiological studies have shown that the African swine fever virus gene type II introduced into China has homology with the whole genome sequence of the strains published in Georgia, Russia and Poland. About 99.95%. Since the first epidemic, experts from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs have conducted systematic epidemiological investigations. The results show that in China, there are three main ways of transmission of African swine fever: live pigs and their products are transported off-site, pigs in the kitchen and pigs and human vehicles carry virus transmission, accounting for 16.3%, 42.9% and 40.8% respectively. Among them, the feed of kitchen waste and pigs and the transportation of viruses carried by personnel vehicles account for a large proportion.
It should be pointed out that once African piglets are planted in a country, it is difficult to eradicate them in the short term. Feng Zhongwu, deputy director of the Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said: "In 2018, the global African swine fever epidemic was significantly heavier than in previous years. The number of newly-increased countries increased by 30% year-on-year, and the number of epidemics increased by 10.7% year-on-year. Some countries showed large outbreaks and large The trend is in the past. In the past 100 years, only 13 of the more than 60 countries that have had African swine fever have eradicated the epidemic. Moreover, the eradication time is from 5 to 36 years, and it has paid a huge amount of manpower, material resources and financial resources. Since the first occurrence of African swine fever in Russia in 2007, there have been more than 1,000 epidemics, and it has not been effectively controlled.
"As of January 20, 2019, there have been 104 outbreaks of domestic pigs and wild boars in 25 provinces. At present, 83 infected areas have been released from the blockade according to regulations. The epidemic is in a spot-like manner, and there is no epidemic spread. The momentum began to slow down.” Guangdefu, a spokesperson for the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that in order to do a good job in the prevention and control of African swine fever, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has formulated a series of prevention and control policies, including blockade, culling and harmlessness. Conventional prevention and control measures such as treatment and disinfection also include special prevention and control requirements for the transmission characteristics of African swine fever, such as restricting transportation and prohibiting the feeding of kitchen waste.
Is it safe to eat pork?
Experts have made it clear that African swine fever is not a zoonotic disease, does not infect people, and does not affect the food safety of pork and its products. Consumers can safely eat it.
Many people worry that the African swine fever will affect pork safety? Wang Shouwei, director of the China Meat Food Comprehensive Research Center and a member of the State Council's Food Safety Expert Committee, clearly stated: “The African swine fever epidemic will not affect the food safety of pork and its products. Consumers can safely consume pork and its products.” African swine fever is not People and animals are ill-conceived and will not infect people. It has been found that in the past 100 years, there have been no cases of human infection of African swine fever in the world, and consumers do not have to worry about the problem of eating pork infected diseases.
“African swine fever does not infect other animals except pigs and does not affect food safety.” Huang Bao continued that international organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the World Organisation for Animal Health have not included African swine fever in zoonotic diseases. The disease is not included in a variety of animal comorbidities. Relevant national researchers have inoculated the virus of African swine fever into more than 10 kinds of animals such as dogs, rats and rabbits for infection experiments, and no infection occurred.
And, high temperatures can kill African swine fever virus. Wang Shouwei said that the African swine fever virus is sensitive to high temperature and can be inactivated by heating at 60 ° C for 20 minutes. The high temperature meat products and low temperature meat products currently on the market can be inactivated by the processing conditions. When cooking fresh (frozen) pork in the home, the processing temperature is often between 90 ° C and 100 ° C, and the virus is more susceptible to loss of activity, as long as sufficient cooking time is ensured. Therefore, it is not necessary to eat pork and related products because of the African swine fever in a certain place.
In addition, strict control measures can effectively prevent infected pork from entering the market. Since the first epidemic in China, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has intensified the investigation of African swine fever, strengthened the quarantine of the production area and slaughter and quarantine. Only the ration-approved pork is allowed to go on sale. In the area where the epidemic occurred, a strict blockade was imposed—all pigs at the epidemic point and pigs at risk in the epidemic area were culled and harmlessly treated, effectively preventing the infected pork from entering the processing chain and consumption at the source. market.
How to prevent and control African swine fever
It is very important to report the epidemic in a timely manner. Relevant departments, pig breeders, enterprise producers and consumers should strengthen the awareness of the prevention and control of the epidemic, so as to cut off the route of epidemic transmission in all aspects.
Proactive reporting of the epidemic in a timely manner is important for effective disposal and control of the epidemic. According to the "Emergency Plan for African Swine Fever Situation", the location of the affected pig is the epidemic point, and the area extending 3 km from the edge of the epidemic point is the epidemic area. For live pigs in the epidemic area, culling should be carried out; live pigs within the epidemic area should be determined according to the test and investigation results. According to reports, in the process of preventing, controlling and fighting animal diseases, the state will compensate the owners who are forced to cull animals. At present, African swine fever has been included in the scope of mandatory culling subsidies in China. For the pigs forced to cull, the owner is given a subsidy of 1,200 yuan per head. Therefore, farm households do not have to have concerns, they should promptly report the epidemic in a timely manner, cooperate with relevant departments to do a good job in the epidemic situation, and reduce the risk of epidemic transmission.
Feng Zhongwu said that since the discovery of African swine fever in China, the animal husbandry and veterinary department has culled pigs in all affected areas, and carried out harmless treatment through chemical and deep burial measures, mainly to prevent the spread of the epidemic, so as not to endanger the disease. More pig farms to protect the pig industry. Since live pigs in infected areas are high-risk sources, live pigs, pork or pork products must not be allowed to flow out of the affected areas, otherwise it will easily spread the epidemic. In fact, it is not only required to cull the pigs in the epidemic area and carry out harmless treatment, but also thoroughly clean and disinfect the pig breeding houses and transportation vehicles, and carry out harmless treatment on other aquaculture wastes to ensure timely Eliminate all hidden dangers.
African swine fever also puts forward requirements for the transformation and development of the hog industry. The reporters learned from various places that the production mode of pigs is actively adapting to the restrictions on transportation and transportation, and the supply and price levels of pigs nationwide are generally stable. The data shows that at present, China has a total of 916,000 pigs culled, accounting for 0.13% of China's 700 million pigs. The direct impact is very limited, and the market supply is still relatively loose. Since August last year, the price of pork in the country has been basically stable, there has not been a sharp rise, and there is no out-of-stock stall. In general, the recent production capacity is sufficient, the supply of pork is guaranteed, and there is little room for price increases.
In view of the seriousness of the prevention and control of swine fever in Africa, Wang Shouwei suggested that consumers should strengthen their awareness of prevention and control of epidemic situation, pay attention to discovering hidden dangers and report in time, so as to cut off the spread of the epidemic in the consumption chain and avoid the spread of African swine fever. When pigs are infected with African piglets, they will have bleeding spots on the ears, limbs and abdominal skin. If consumers find suspicious pork, they should contact the relevant departments in time and cannot discard them. At the same time, local and large-scale pig-raising enterprises are encouraged to explore the establishment of pest-free areas and pest-free areas in accordance with the requirements of regional management, speed up the adjustment of the pork supply chain, and vigorously promote “central slaughtering, brand management, cold chain circulation, cold fresh listing”.
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