It is one of the most familiar vegetable varieties among the people.
It can not only be eaten raw,
Still able to eat fried,
Can also juice,
Can also be made into a variety of side dishes,
Cucumber is really omnipotent.
At the National Science and Technology Awards Conference, which was recently concluded,
The little cucumber once again attracted attention:
Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
“Cucumber genome and important agronomic traits”
“Creation of cucumber high-quality multi-resistant germplasm resources and breeding of new varieties”
National Natural Science Second Prize and
National Science and Technology Progress Second Prize !
Gu Xingfang (left) and Huang Sanwen (right) took a group photo after the award
A cucumber can win two national awards at a time!
What is the story behind it?
Cucumber belongs to the cucurbitaceae family.
Its "close relatives" also include
Watermelon, melon, pumpkin, etc.
Unlike the cucumber we see today,
The earliest wild cucumbers are round,
There are black thorns on the outside, which are bitter and inedible.
Wild cucumbers. (data picture)
After more than 3,000 years of domestication,
Cucumbers eventually became popular vegetables.
At present, cucumber is the largest facility vegetable in China.
Planting area accounts for about 50% of the world.
In fact, cucumber is not a native of China.
It is native to India.
Came to China more than 2,000 years ago.
According to the "Compendium of Materia Medica",
Zhang Wei brought back a vegetable called "courgette" from the Western Region.
This is our cucumber today.
Huang Sanwen and the team's research results
“Cucumber genome and important agronomic traits”
Provided a strong scientific basis for this historical event.
There are more than 23,000 genes in cucumber.
At present, the germplasm has mainly evolved into four groups:
India, Xishuangbanna, Eurasian and East Asian groups.
Xishuangbanna, Eurasian and East Asian groups are
After initial domestication in India
Spread separately to different regions.
The separation time between the East Asian and Indian wild taxa is about
This is consistent with the historical facts recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica!
After clarifying the "identity" of the cucumber,
The team began to pay attention to the genetic breeding of cucumber.
Huang Sanwen believes that:
Only through the tools of genomics,
In order to systematically study the genetic variation of germplasm resources,
Establish a system for efficient identification of important agronomic trait genes,
Cucumber biology research is likely to be deep,
Molecular design breeding is possible .
Research team in cucumber genome and chromosome evolution,
Population genetic variation law,
And the molecular mechanism of the formation of important agronomic traits
Systematic research was carried out in other areas.
The results have promoted the basic biology of vegetables in China.
Plant metabolism regulation research has entered the international advanced level,
Realized the research of vegetable genomics in China
From the run to the lead !
The cucumber we eat today is crispy and delicious.
But in fact the cucumbers of the past are not all so delicious.
Before the 1990s,
Especially in the south,
People often eat very bitter cucumbers.
It used to be widely believed that
The taste is bitter because of lack of water .
Is this statement reasonable?
Huang Sanwen said that this conclusion is correct.
But water shortage is only a superficial phenomenon.
The deeper reasons are:
Cucumber can synthesize a substance called cucurbitacin C.
It is the "culprit" that causes the fruit to become bitter. .
It is only secreted when the cucumber encounters an unfavorable living environment.
Cucurbitacin C is a "double-edged sword".
Although it makes the fruit bitter,
But at the same time it also makes the leaves of cucumber bitter,
Thereby effectively preventing the invasion of pests .
The Huang Sanwen team further discovered that
Controlling the synthesis of cucumber bitter substances actually exists
a control fruit,
A control blade.
"If you only close the switch that controls the fruit,
Will control the opening of the blade,
It is not possible to realize that the cucumber is not bitter and the leaves are resistant to insects. ”
Huang Sanwen and the team put forward such an idea.
It turns out that this reasoning is correct.
This discovery reveals
A new mechanism for the precise regulation of plant secondary metabolism,
Also cultivate new varieties of high-yield and high-quality resistant insect-resistant cucumbers
Molecular breeding program .
Currently based on the above research results
The team cultivated “Vegetable No. 2”,
"Vegetable Research No. 5", "Vegetable Research 12" and other series,
Successfully solved the problem of the bitterness of cucumber varieties in South China.
Huang Sanwen and team members are tasting the taste of cucumber.
What kind of cucumber variety is a good variety?
High quality and high resistance ".
Gu Xingfang, a researcher at the Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said.
Gu Xingfang (right) checks the growth of cucumber in the greenhouse.
Gu Xingfang leads the team
Developed a new generation of 8 different ecological types
High quality and multi-resistant cucumber varieties,
Leading the high quality breeding direction of dense thorn cucumber,
It has become the benchmark for cucumber quality breeding in China.
Cucurbitaceae vegetables have a short growth cycle.
In the course of a year,
The sowing mouth of cucumber can reach up to 6 times.
Far higher than some vegetables 2 to 3 times.
Especially in the summer,
The temperature in the greenhouse is on average 8 to 10 degrees higher than the outside.
Gu Xingfang team
Need to put the cucumber in the test field more than ten acres
Manually pollinating, selecting seeds, observing and recording.
With the joint efforts of the entire team,
The eight new cucumber varieties bred are prominently commercial.
In line with residents' demand for high quality cucumbers,
Favored by consumers.
Compared with the original main plant, the average yield increased by more than 10%.
Reduce pesticide use by about 20%!
According to Gu Xingfang,
The new varieties cultivated by the team are in 27 provinces (cities, districts) across the country.
Accumulatively promoted 11.879 million mu,
New social and economic benefits were 9.161 billion yuan.
In the end, Xiaobian wants to say,
Nothing is unachievable.
A small cucumber can pick up two grand prizes at a time.
Other vegetable friends should also work harder!
Charity In China Reported
Scan Alipay QR Code
And we also accept the donation of Bitcoin.
Our Bitcoin address : 16ih3dGgfNf3TtrwgKzMnYbtixrQqEFk14
Scan QR Code
Thank you for your love