“A city, in the bustling and crowded city center, especially in the downtown area, there is such a street garden, it is rare.”
This is a description of the road to justice by writer Xiao Fu.
A quiet and peaceful road to justice in the morning
On this quiet south avenue, which connects to Qianmen East Street in the south and connects East Chang'an Street in the north, the most famous landmark is the No. 2 Zhengyi Road, the seat of the former Beijing Municipal People's Government.
Since the founding of New China in 1949, Zhengyi Road No. 2 has almost always been the resident of the Beijing Municipal Government. On the night of January 10, 2019, the Beijing Municipal People's Government, which is located here, officially delisted and handed over the cards to the Beijing Municipal Archives for retention. On January 11, with the approval of the State Council, the Beijing Municipal People's Government moved to No. 57, East Canal Avenue, Tongzhou District.
In the midst of the quiet road of justice, it is so quietly and calmly guarded in the majesty and prosperity, quietly witnessing the history of the sea. And what kind of twists and turns does it have in its past and present?
Looking back, past and present
The location of the Justice Road in the Ming Dynasty was the Yuhe River. The Yuhe River is a river that flows from north to south. Because the river flows through the Imperial Palace, it is the water flowing through the river of the Imperial Palace moat, so it is called the Yuhe River. There are three stone arch bridges on the river, namely the North Yuhe Bridge on Dongchang'an Street, the Zhongyu River Bridge on Jiangmi Lane (now Dongjiaominxiang) and the Nanyu River Bridge on Qianmen East Street.
Nanyu River Bridge and Zhongyu River Bridge in 1901
In the late Qing Dynasty, the roads were built on both sides of the Yu River, and the names of the roads changed many times. There have been "Tomb Road", "British Road", "Concord Road" and so on. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Yuhe River was assigned to the foreign embassy. The embassy circles reorganized the banks of the Yuhe River into brick embankments, and the rivers were narrowed, but the riversides on both sides were widened and became wide roads.
The roadside is widened on both sides of the river
In 1901, the embassy community dismantled the Nanyu River Bridge and changed the Yuhe River into a dark ditch as a parking lot for the Six Nations Hotel. In 1926, the Yuhe River, which was changed from the north of the Yuhe Bridge to the section of Chang'an Street, became a dark ditch. The middle of the road was turned into a green belt, transforming the original east and west riverside into a spacious road.
Demolition of the parking lot of the Six Nations Hotel built on the foundation of the Nanyu River Bridge
In the 1930s, the North Yuhe Bridge was also demolished into a road. In the thirty-sixth year of the Republic of China (1947), the East Coast called the Justice Road, the West Bank called the Xingguo Road, and it was used after 1949. In 1965, when the names were reorganized, they were collectively called the Justice Road.
Wangfu Mansion Government Resident
No. 2, Zhengyi Road, the former seat of the Beijing Municipal People's Government, was the seat of the Su Prince and the Japanese Embassy.
At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the place was the home of the "eight big iron hat kings" Hauge. In the eighth year of Shunzhi (1651), the son of the king changed the name to "display", so the government is also known as the Prince. In the forty-three years of Emperor Qianlong (1778), he reinstated the hereditary title of the Prince, and the government was also known as the Su Prince House. Since then, a total of ten generations have attacked Wang Jun as the government.
And Shuo Su Prince Ai Xinjue Luo Haug Portrait
By the time the last attack on Wang Shanzhen, the government became a ruin in the Boxer Rebellion. After the signing of the "Xin Chou Treaty" in the 27th year of Guangxu (1901), the foreign country expanded the embassy of Dongjiaominxiang, and the government merged the embassy when Japan expanded it.
In 1909, on the ruins of the Su Prince House, the famous Japanese designer Shinsuke Inou built a Western-style new embassy on the basis of the remains of the Wangfu Garden.
The gates and office buildings we can see now are left in this period. The architectural style of the New Japan Embassy combines the elements of Western classicism, Baroque and the Middle Ages, presenting a typical modern Japanese imitation European style.
The gate that was just built in 1909
It is 40 years after the Japanese Embassy has withdrawn from Justice Road No. 2.
On January 1, 1949, in order to ensure the smooth and peaceful liberation of Beiping, the People's Government of Beiping City was established in Baoding. On January 31, Peiping peacefully liberated. On February 2nd, the Beiping Municipal Government in the suburbs moved from the suburbs to Peiping City and began to work outside the office. On September 27 of the same year, Beiping was renamed Beijing, and the People's Government of Beiping City was renamed the Beijing Municipal People's Government.
As for when the Beijing Municipal People's Government moved to No. 2 Zhengyi Road, we still have to find the answer from the old map.
According to the "Zhengyang Bookstore Brick Reading Space" public account, from the Peking of the Republic of China to the beginning of the liberation, the Beijing Municipal Government has been in the northwest corner of Zhongnanhai on the east side of Fuyou Street. From the map of Beijing in the 1930s to 1948 before the liberation, the west side of Zhongnanhai has always been the office of the municipal government. At the same time, Justice Road No. 2 is still the seat of the Japanese Embassy.
1948 "The Latest Beijing Street Map"
In the detailed map of the streets of Beijing drawn in 1950, No. 2 Zhengyi Road is no longer used as a Japanese embassy.
1950 Beijing street detail
The official relocation of the Beijing Municipal Government to Zhengyi Road should also be shortly after this. Until the night of January 10, 2019, in the past 70 years, this green and quiet road, because of the existence of the city government is particularly solemn and solemn.
The original site of the Beijing Municipal People's Government at No. 2 Zhengyi Road
Famous for the waves
In addition to witnessing the changes in the Beijing Municipal People's Government, there are still many stories on this road.
Perhaps many people are strangers to the “Huafeng Hotel” at the southernmost tip of the Justice Road, but its predecessor is the famous Six Nations Hotel at home and abroad.
In 1901, a Belgian businessman built a Western-style hotel on the southeast side of the Yuhe Zhongqiao. This hotel is the predecessor of the Six Nations Hotel. Because the business was flat after the completion of the hotel, the British led the re-raising of funds in 1905, and absorbed the capital of the six major powers of Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Japan and Russia, and rebuilt the original hotel. It was named "Six Country Hotel". .
A sensationally beautiful six-country hotel
After the redevelopment, as the embassy district relaxed the control of Chinese access, the hotel business became better and better. In 1925, the Six Nations Hotel was elevated on the original basis due to business needs, and the construction was very luxurious. Therefore, the Six Nations Hotel was the most famous hotel in Beijing at that time.
The 1949 Kuomintang Peace Negotiation Venue – the original Six Nations Hotel
It is particularly worth mentioning that the two historic negotiations at the Six Nations Hotel have made it famous both at home and abroad. One time, the negotiations between the central government and the Fengshui Department were held in the Six-State Hotel. After several setbacks, the agreement was finally reached and the Northeast issue was resolved peacefully. Second, after the peaceful settlement of the Peiping issue in 1949, in April of the same year, the peace talks between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party were held in the Six Nations Hotel. Later, the negotiations broke down and all members of the Nanjing delegation remained in Beiping. After the founding of New China, the Six Kingdoms Hotel was renamed Huafeng Hotel, which is a three-star hotel under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Show justice, don't forget history
Former Japanese Zhengjin Bank old photos
The Justice Road No. 4 on the road of justice was once the former site of the former Beijing Zhengjin Bank Beijing Branch. It was built in 1910 and is a national key cultural relics protection unit with a construction area of over 3,000 square meters. It is now the seat of the new museum of the Chinese Court Museum. There are three basic exhibition halls, seven special exhibition halls, three common law zones, and one legal film and television screening hall.
Chinese Court Museum
Whether it is the "China Trial History Exhibition" in the basic exhibition hall, the "People Trial History Exhibition", or the "Justice of Judgment – Trial of Japanese War Criminals" in the special exhibition hall, "East Passage of the World", these truly reproduce the historical scene. And the details, to alert the world, more to show the sense of justice across time and space.
Sunny road filled with red flags
The Yuhe River of that year has become the road of justice today, and both sides of the road have already experienced the vast sea of mulberry fields. Strolling through the buildings of the Chinese-Western combination of justice and justice in the road of justice, it seems as if you will pull back the time back to a hundred years ago, and you will be fascinated by imagination. The seemingly quiet streets and roads show the most magnificent historical scrolls. Every step taken here is a dialogue between the soul and history.
Source: Beijing Local Records (ID: bjsfzgdyh), Zhengyang Bookstore Brick Reading Space (ID: zysjzdkj)
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