Today 70 years ago
January 31, 1949
It is a day worth remembering by Beijingers.
Kuomintang troops all withdraw from Beiping
The People's Liberation Army entered Beiping and took over the defense
The People's Liberation Army and the Fu Zuoyi troops uprising officers and men handed over the Beiping defense.
No shots and one shot
In the midst of the storm
Peaceful liberation of this millennium ancient city
Destined to write into history!
From siege to defending the city
Beiping before dawn
What a thrilling historical moment?
Eight chapters of the law
I don't know who posted a notice in the alley in the middle of the night. When I woke up, my neighbors gathered in front of the notice, and an old neighborhood that knew the words and words was told to everyone:
Peking citizens watched the notice before the bulletin board
Notice of the People's Liberation Army Pingjin Frontline Command
The army was ordered to annihilate the Kuomintang army and liberate the cities of Beiping, Tianjin, Tangshan and Zhangjiakou. Zitt announced the eight chapters of the law and would like to abide by all the people:
(1) Protecting the lives and property of all people in all cities.
(2) Protecting national industrial commerce.
(8) Regardless of whether the army enters the city and enters the city, all citizens and people from all walks of life in the city must be jointly responsible for maintaining social order and avoiding damage. Those who protect the meritorious deeds, conspiracy to destroy the penalty.
The old neighborhood read this, paused, took a breather, and advertised with a finger, deliberately raised the voice and continued to read:
The military has strict discipline, publicly buys and sells publicly, and does not take the folks a needle and a line. I hope that all the people will live and work in peace and contentment, and never believe in rumors and be disturbed.
Commander Lin Wei
Political Commissioner Luo Rongzhen
December 22, Republic of China, December
A white-bearded old man in the crowd took over the words:
"When the Hanwang Liu Bang led the army into Guanzhong, there was a ‘three chapters of the law.' The father and the father, the third chapter of the law; the murderer died, wounded and stolen. This liberation army has five more chapters than Han Gaozu!”
After listening to this, the old neighbours gave a laugh, and the voice also opened:
"It seems that the PLA is going to enter Beiping!"
"Come on, come on! The young and old have a good year!"
"Quickly! The patrol is coming!"
In a blink of an eye, there was no figure in the Hutong mouth. The patrolman came over and glanced at the notice. The hand lifted it and shook his head and walked helplessly. Because these days, the city of Sijiu has everywhere notices of the Communist Party’s Beiping underground party, and even the Kuomintang police station has received notices.
"The Eighth Chapter of the Law" was actually drafted by Chairman Mao. On December 22, 1948, it was issued in the name of Lin Biao, commander of the Pingjin Frontline Command, and Luo Rongzhen, the political commissar, and stipulated the eight disciplines of the People's Liberation Army.
Six days later, on December 28th, Ye Jianying, director of the Beiping City Military Management Committee, issued the "Notice of the Beiping City Military Management Commission on Preparing for the City to Enter the City". The annex stipulates the "fourteen rules for entering the city" and refines the "about eight chapter".
(1) The personnel entering the city and the troops must wear symbols or hold certificates and abide by policies, disciplines and rules.
(2) Military personnel entering the city must pay attention to military discipline, tidy clothing, and pay attention to etiquette.
(3) When going to the right, go to the right side, do not allow horses to drive in the city, the speed of the car should not exceed 40 miles per hour, be careful not to accidents.
(4) It is not allowed to eat on the street, and it is not allowed to urinate and maintain public health.
(5) It is not allowed to enter private houses, and the people must be traded fairly and must abide by the mass discipline.
(6) No guns are allowed to fire without a reason after the end of the battle.
(14) Everyone should publicize the policies and decrees of the Communist Party and the people's government.
"Eight chapters of the law" and "fourteen rules of the city" have been seen, just look at the 41 army officers who will enter the city.
Are you qualified for entering the city?
The 41th military has a great reputation and is famous.
The Liaoshen campaign "Tashan blocking war" did not allow, and broke 100,000 Jiang Jun escaped; Pingjin battle Pingyi line waist and long snakes, together with the enemy did not miss the net. After receiving the task of the guard Beiping, the 41th Army Party Committee immediately convened a meeting to form a short and powerful resolution.
… Our army entered the city and represented our Party and our army in the city. Therefore, the quality of our policy is not only an army, but the whole party and the whole army have a great influence on domestic and international.
… I am a cadre soldier of the whole army. All municipal industrial and commercial municipal culture, historical sites, national warehouses, property materials and all public facilities in Peiping City are only allowed to be taken care of; they are not allowed to be used; only protection, no damage; empty hand, empty hand Out, really do not commit crimes in autumn.
"Empty hand in, empty hand out", more crisp slogans, high standards!
After the military party committee, the military political commissar Mo Wenyi immediately met with the cadres of the entire army regiment in the Summer Palace. He pointed to the Paiyun Temple, and greeted the cold wind and eagerly said: "What is the situation? This is the situation. Today, sitting under the Temple of Paiyun, it shows that the revolutionary situation has developed into a strategic decisive stage, our thinking, We must adapt to this situation, and we must successfully complete the glorious mission of the guard Beiping."
After the mobilization meeting, the whole army immediately launched a one-week policy discipline education. The divisions "eight immortals across the sea, each showing their ability", created a variety of educational methods.
The stadium is full of heroic soldiers. A cadre holds a roster, reads a name, points a policy discipline, and asks the named soldier to answer. This is the "policy point method" invented by the 121st Division.
The 123 division was even more invented and invented the "evaluation of qualifications into the city". They first set six conditions:
The first is to protect the city and not to destroy it;
The second is to guard the guards, intact;
The third is to go in empty hands and empty hands;
Fourth, the position is firm, not corrupt, and not used by bad elements;
Fifth, it does not violate the police rules;
Sixth, there is a sense of responsibility, and others make mistakes and actively stop it.
According to these conditions, from the division commander, the political commissar to the cook, the pickpocket, one by one, who is not qualified, they want to enter the city to perform the task.
A large-scale deputy instructor of the 369 regiment, in the battle to liberate Zhangjiakou, paid a pen and squatted in his pocket and squatted. As a result, in the ruling council, the old things were mentioned again, and the deputy instructors checked twice. The soldiers still disagreed with him entering the city. No way, he shed tears to find the head of the group, find the political commissar, find the director of the political department, and ask the head to give him a "guarantee" to ensure that he will never violate the mass discipline after entering Beiping.
Seeing that the deputy instructor was so sad, the soldiers only "highed their hands" and reluctantly agreed to "pass the customs." In the end, there were still very few who failed to pass and lost their qualifications for entering the city. When the troops entered the city, they had to stay outside the city to blink.
"Three for three not to enter"
On January 31, 1949, this day was the third day of the Lunar New Year. Mo Wenjun led the 121st Division's commanders and men from Xizhimen to take over the Beiping defense.
The 121st Division of the 41st Army went to Beizhimen in Beiping to take over the defense. Gao Fanshe, provided by the Beijing Cultural Relics Bureau Library Data Center
On the ancient city tower, the PLA soldiers wearing grass-green military uniforms and arms wearing "flat police" armbands are heroic, and the bright red flags are flying high.
It is the Great Cold Festival, the north wind and the cold wind whistling, dripping into ice. At night, the soldiers on duty in Deshengmen, some with a quilt that is difficult to keep warm, some wearing a very thin coat, crowded in the doorway of the people, under the eaves, frozen lips purple, but No one is going to call the door of the people. When Mozambique, the political commissar, asked them if they were cold or cold, the soldiers said humorously: "It's not cold, we have fire dragon clothes."
After a careful question, I realized that they couldn't sleep at night, and they walked around and jumped in the same place. They also joked with the cadres who were sleeping together: "Haha, you are not cold, you have a layer more than us." Official cadres have spread more newspapers than they do.
"Tight eighteen, slow eighteen, not too slow or eighteen." This sentence is the early morning bells and drums of the old Beijing Bell and Drum Tower 108. But the Drum Tower in 1949 was already ruined, and even the windows were ugly. The Drum Tower is a cultural relic. It can't make a fire. When the north wind blows, it is really a "cool heart." The nearby people came to the soldiers several times to warm and warm, but they insisted on not going into the houses and not disturbing the citizens.
The third is back to a group of "woman soldiers", aunt, big sister, big sister, please soldiers must enter the house to live. The company commander had to tell the truth: "The superiors are not allowed to enter the private housing. Your mind is ours, but the room cannot enter."
The story of "three for three not to enter" was quickly spread. Many ordinary people went to see the troops stationed near their homes. The result was shocked and stunned. The soldiers were eating glutinous rice noodles and cornmeal two-in-one. Also with hail; the pickles are dried pods, pickled eggplants, pickled radishes, and drink the cold water of the roots. In order not to let the animals bark the bark, the soldiers used their raincoats to wrap them on the trunks of the horses. When they were afraid of the animals pulling the dung to affect the city's hygiene, they hung a cloth dung in the back of each horse's buttocks…
"You are the most civilized army"
After many efforts, the housing problem of the 41st Army was finally solved, but the new problem came again. It turns out that the Beiping City of Beiping can make room for the house, not a bureaucrat or a capitalist, or a senior intellectual or other famous person. The large-scale family who live in this high-level courtyard is a special assessment of the military's entry into the city.
After the liberation of Peiping, the people warmly welcomed the People's Liberation Army
Xicheng Baozi Hutong No. 18 (now No. 39, No. 39, West Fourth North) is the home of Mr. Cheng Qiuqiu, one of the four famous monks of Peking Opera. The 41 Military Military Communications Department lives here. During the national war of resistance, Cheng Haoqiu sang the iron bones, did not sing for the Japanese, punched the traitors and spies, offended the Japanese and the pseudo-authorities, and had to retreat to the Qinglong Bridge.
In order to express gratitude to Mr. Cheng, the head of the 41th Army Wu Kehua, the political commissar Mo Wenbiao and the deputy political commissar Ouyang Wen and other deputy political comrades came to visit the newspaper Hutong to visit him. This made Cheng Qiuqiu very moved: "The army is going to the fire for the people, it should be hospitality." "There are only a lot of family members, and the cold house is small. I am sorry." Several military chiefs hurriedly said: "This has already added a lot of trouble to you, please Mr. Cheng Haihan."
The Military Political Department Combat Newspaper was admitted to the former General Secretary of the Southwest Associated University and Professor Zheng Tianting of Peking University. Zheng family did not dare to approach the soldiers at first, and stayed away from it. But slowly, they found that the People's Liberation Army and the newspapers had the same propaganda, and they were knowledgeable and civilized.
Professor Zheng’s four girls loved listening to the battle story and soon became familiar with the soldiers. When the comrades of the newspaper wanted to move to other places, the four girls reluctantly said with deep affection: "You are totally different from the Kuomintang soldiers, and you are talking to you. Now that you are familiar with it, you are leaving. We are really reluctant. After the delivery to the gate, the four girls kept saying: "You are a cultural army and the most civilized army."
The 41 Army took over 108 warehouses. There were a lot of things inside. There were guns and ammunition, military uniforms, and rice flour and canned wine. But the soldiers stood by discipline and did not engage in "the first month of the water."
The 364th Regiment 2 battalion was stationed in the anti-iron lion alley. The deputy battalion commander saw the shoes of 4 or more soldiers broke. The instrument Yin Deng went to the warehouse of the guard to take 9 pairs of shoes for the soldiers to wear. I didn’t think that Yin Dengyu said to him: “Before entering the city, we have all learned policy discipline, and we must take care of the warehouse.”
The deputy battalion commander was impatient: "This is the order. I am responsible for the incident!" Yin Deng took three pairs and immediately reported the company. Even in the comments of the soldiers, everyone said: "No matter how much shoes are missing, things that violate discipline are not done." The shoes were returned intact. For this matter, at the party group meeting, the party member soldiers named the deputy battalion commander and asked him to check with the company.
A few days later, at the garrison work meeting, the deputy political commissar Ouyang Wen named a few comrades who violated discipline and was called "the policy point will be Taiwan." The Ministry of Political Affairs also published inspirations in the "New People's Daily", asking the district government and the community to supervise the military discipline.
The well-informed Beiping citizens summed up the four advantages of the 41 army guards: one is not noisy, the second is not running, the third is not in the civilian house, and the fourth is standing at night to not scare the people.
The people near the Baita Temple gave the 364th group a "disciplined" banner. An 80-year-old woman said emotionally: "I have seen any team, and I have never seen such a good team.
Hand over the nails
Two days after the liberation of the People's Liberation Army in Tsinghua University and Yanjing University, in order to protect cultural relics, Chairman Mao personally drafted a telegram to Lin Biao and Luo Rongzhen: "Shahe, Qinghe, Haidian, Xishan and other important cultural and historical sites, for all the original management personnel is also Untouched, our army only sent troops to protect and send people to contact. In particular, pay attention to the faculty and students of Tsinghua University and Yanjing University, and discuss with them how to reduce losses in combat."
To this end, Peng Zhen, secretary of the Peiping Municipal Party Committee, instructed the Gaodian of the Haidian Military Management Association to ask him to send Tsinghua University to mark the cultural relics that should be protected. In the evening, Zhang Yuruo, the head of the Department of Political Science at Tsinghua University, came to Liang Sicheng, the director of the Department of Architecture at Tsinghua University, with two representatives of the People's Liberation Army. He asked him to mark the precious buildings and cultural relics that need to be protected on a map and draw a place where the bombardment was prohibited. .
This made Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin very excited. They had been worried that the war might destroy the ancient buildings in Beiping. Two days later, they drew a picture and sent it to the Pingjin Frontline Command. Later, Mr. Liang recalled this moment and still remembered it: "In childhood, reading Mencius, 'sucking pot slurries, to welcome Wang Shi', these two words were embodied in my mind that day. I didn't know anything about the Communist Party in the past. Since then, I have been 'fallen at first sight'."
On January 21, 1949, the "Agreement on Peaceful Settlement of Peiping" was officially signed into effect, stipulating that the two sides would have a truce from 10:00 on January 22. On the 22nd, the deputy director of the Kuomintang’s North China’s “Yong Zong” Political Work Department held a Chinese and foreign press conference at the Water Park of Zhongshan Park. On behalf of General Fu Zuoyi, he read the “Agreement” and the notice. Peiping was peacefully liberated, but the task of protecting the cultural relics and historic sites of the 41st Army is still not easy.
The 367 regiment 1 was on duty at the Summer Palace. They posted the book of determination to protect cultural relics on the wall and on the gate, and asked the people to supervise. Seeing that the PLA soldiers patrolled seriously and loved the grass and trees in the garden, even the dry branches that fell on the ground did not move. A old worker from the Summer Palace praised and said: "You are the best under the sun." The army, like the eye-protection of the eye, loves the Summer Palace."
People's Liberation Army soldiers guard cultural relics
The 363 regiment is responsible for guarding important places such as the Tuancheng, Beihai, Forbidden City, Jingshan, Taimiao and Liuguo Hotels. The head of the team, Le Jun, and the political commissar Zhou Zhitong and the director Cai Hongjiang, are checking on duty every day. The handover is very careful, and I have to count the nails. If there is more nails, it is necessary to find out who is nailed.
Mo Wenqi came to the Forbidden City to check. The soldiers were very curious about the Baoding, the Golden Cylinder, the Copper Turtle, and the Sundial of the Hall of Supreme Harmony. They kept asking this question. Mo Wenyi explained to the education soldiers: "The grass and trees here are precious cultural relics, so that our future generations can see it all in the future."
PLA soldiers stand guard in front of the Peiping Library
In mid-April 1949, the 41st Army completed its mission brilliantly and was about to be ordered to go south. At the farewell party held at the Zhongshang Park Concert Hall, Commander-in-Chief Zhu De’s speech highlighted:
An army with strict discipline can gain the trust and support of the people in order to win the battle.
Famous people from all walks of life in Beiping and Hu Yuzhi and other famous people personally gave the flag of the 41st Army divisions – "winning the flag, liberating Jiangnan" and "there is no crime in autumn, the teacher of benevolence and justice".
The Peking People’s Government and the Reconciliation Group donated the banner of the 41st Division of the 41st Army
Chen Yi once vividly compared the discipline of entering the city to the "meeting ceremony" of the People's Liberation Army to the public. The 41 military model implemented the discipline of entering the city, which is the best meeting for the citizens of Beiping.
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