Road network access, speed up the pace of development (big data observation, focus on traffic)
The expressway and high-speed railways rank first in the world, and the total turnover of air transport is the second in the world.
Roads pass through, Baiyexing, and transportation is the forerunner of development. Since the reform and opening up, the pace of infrastructure construction in China's transportation sector has been accelerating, and it has successfully achieved a major leap from “bottleneck restriction” to “preliminary mitigation” to “basic adaptation” to economic and social development, and has made important importance for the people's safe and convenient travel. contribution.
■ 13.65 million kilometers
The total mileage of highways ranks first in the world
The two-way eight-lane road is forward-looking, wide and flat, and the traffic is constantly flowing and orderly. The restaurants, supermarkets, gas stations, maternity rooms and shower rooms in the service area are all well-known… On the Shenda Expressway, the reporter intuitively felt the "China speed" of the expressway.
At one time, the development of China's highway infrastructure was lagging behind and became a major bottleneck for development. In order to solve this bottleneck, China has successively introduced policies such as raising the standards for raising road tolls, levying vehicle purchase surcharges, and “loaning roads, repaying loans and repaying loans”, which broke the system shackle of road construction relying solely on financial investment, forming a “state. Diversified investment and financing mechanisms for investment, local financing, social financing, and utilization of foreign capital.
In October 1988, the first expressway in China's mainland, Hujia Highway, was completed and opened to traffic; in 1993, China's first part of the expressway built by the World Bank loan, the Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu Expressway, was completed and opened to traffic… The leap-forward development from scratch to coverage. By the end of 2017, the total length of expressways nationwide was 136,500 kilometers, much higher than the 147 kilometers in 1988, with an average annual growth rate of 26.6%. The total mileage ranked first in the world, covering 97% of the urban and prefecture-level administrative centers with a population of more than 200,000. .
The expressway has risen up the skeleton and speeded up the pace of development; rural roads lead to the countryside, which has benefited hundreds of millions of people. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has carried out in-depth construction of the “Four Good Rural Roads”, and newly renovated rural roads with a total area of 1.275 million kilometers in five years, and implemented the “sliding ropes and bridges” and “100 traffic poverty alleviation backbone tunnels” in an orderly manner. Rural roads and other projects, the rural road mileage reached 4 million kilometers, access to 99.99% of townships and 99.98% of the established villages.
By the end of 2017, the total mileage of China's highways has climbed from 890,200 km at the beginning of reform and opening up to 4,773,500 km, an average annual increase of 4.4%; the density of roads per 100 km2 has risen from 9.27 km to 49.72 km; and the national highway bridges are 83.25 million. 522.562 million meters, respectively 6.5 and 15.9 times the initial stage of reform and opening up.
■ 2.9 million kilometers
High-speed rail operating mileage is one-third higher than the sum of high-speed rail in other countries around the world.
"In the past, there were many mountainous railways and fewer railway lines in Fujian. The trains were not going to get up. Many passengers took a night bus and woke up and wondered: How can they still sway in the province?" Zhang Yinglong, who was nearly ninety years old, participated in the Yingxia Railway. Built and worked on the railway for more than half a century. With the high-speed railways such as Wenfu, Fuxia and Hefu, which have been opened for operation, the “public transport” EMUs in five or six minutes have formed a traffic circle centering on Fuzhou and covering the provinces and cities for three hours. The one-day train traffic circle radiates Beijing, Shaanxi, Shaanxi, Guizhou and other provinces and autonomous regions. "Now that so many high-speed rails extend in all directions, it is really convenient to travel."
The transformation of Fujian's railways is a microcosm of the Chinese railway network. From windowless, squeaky "sweet tanker" to "harmony" with air conditioning and soft sofas, to intelligent, purely autonomous, WiFi-enabled "Revival", from a top speed of 60 kilometers per hour to an operating speed of 350 kilometers per hour. From the maximum load of 3,000 tons to the heavy load of 20,000 tons of trucks, from late night queues to tickets to mobile phones to pay for tickets…
China Railways gradually turned from catching up to leading and handing out amazing transcripts:
The road network is getting denser. China's railway operating mileage has increased from 51,700 kilometers in 1978 to more than 131,000 kilometers in 2018, of which more than 29,000 kilometers of high-speed rail, more than one-third more than the sum of high-speed rail in other countries around the world.
More and more travelers. From 1978 to 2018, the number of Chinese railway passengers increased from 815 million to 3.37 billion, of which EMU sent 2.05 billion passengers. "Traveling on the go" is no longer a dream.
Logistics is getting busy. The volume of railway cargo shipments increased from 1.101 billion tons in 1978 to 4.022 billion tons in 2018, an increase of 2.66 times. Since the start of the China-European class in 2011, the number of scales has increased by spurt. In 2018 alone, the China-European class was 6,300, a year-on-year increase of 72%. A “golden train” is promoting a strong domestic market.
Overseas cooperation is becoming more widespread. From assisting the construction of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway to the construction of the entire industrial chain, the operation of the Yaji Railway, and then to the Chinese high-speed rail all-round out of the Indonesian Yawan high-speed rail… China Railways "going out" has become more stable.
■ 120.64 billion tons of kilometers
The total turnover of air transport ranks second in the world for 14 consecutive years.
“The previous airfare was all hand-written by hand. The tickets received by passengers are packed in a large envelope, and a thick piece of paper, including flight coupons, passengers, etc., is delivered to the door by a special ticket giver.” Southern Airlines An Zhen, deputy manager of the Marketing E-Commerce Department of the Marketing Department, pointed to an old photo of the ticket. Today, passengers can automatically enter the gate by gently scanning the QR code on the phone.
The change of small air tickets reflects the changes in China's civil aviation industry. By plane, from the "luxury" thing, it became the ordinary way of mass travel.
Look at the airport and route first. By the end of 2018, there were 235 national transportation airports. Among them, there are 37 passengers with a throughput of 10 million airports and 10 airports with 30 million flights. The passenger throughput of the Capital Airport exceeded 100 million passengers at the end of last year. Initially, a pattern has been formed in which the international hub airports such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou are the center, the provincial hub cities and key regional hub airports are the backbone, and other trunk feeder airports cooperate with each other. By 2018, the total number of domestic routes in China is 3,420 (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan routes), and in 2016, a total of 5.624 million flights were guaranteed.
Look at the transportation production situation. According to data from the Civil Aviation Administration of China, since 2005, China's annual total air traffic volume (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) has been ranked second in the world. In 2018, China's civil aviation industry has completed a total transportation turnover of 120.64 billion ton-km, passenger traffic of 610 million passengers, and cargo and mail transportation of 7.385 million tons. The proportion of passenger turnover in the national comprehensive transportation system has been 1.6% from 1978. It rose to 31% in 2018.
At the same time, the route network covering both domestic and overseas has gradually improved, and international routes have expanded rapidly. In 2018, China has 786 international routes, including 105 “One Belt, One Road” national routes.
Wu Jie, a captain of the 777 fleet of China Southern Airlines, recalled his personal experience. In July 1997, China Southern used the Boeing 777 passenger plane to depart from Guangzhou and arrived at Los Angeles International Airport after 13 hours of non-stop flight. For the first time in human history, double-engine aircraft did not stop commercial flights across the Pacific. “When the Guangzhou-Los Angeles route was first opened, there were less than 40,000 passengers per year. Today, the number of passengers has exceeded 400,000, an increase of more than 10 times. The goods have also changed from the clothing of the year to the mold with higher added value. Electronic products, seafood, etc. The passengers were mainly Chinese and overseas Chinese, and now there are more and more international guests." Wu Jie said.
At the same time that international routes are constantly being opened, international exchanges and cooperation are also deepening. As of the end of 2018, there were 126 countries and regions that signed air transport agreements with China. Last year, China successfully hosted the first Asia-Pacific Regional Civil Aviation Ministerial Conference. Through the Beijing Declaration, the Human Destiny Community was first written into the international civil aviation field.
Liu Zhiqiang Lu Yanan Zhao Zhanhui
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